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definindo o efeito do café na pressão arterial

Publicado  quinta-feira, 23 de agosto de 2012

Definindo o efeito do cafe na pressao arterial


Habitual coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies1,2,3

  1. Liwei Chen

  • 2 Supported by Louisiana State University Health Science Center, School of Public Health (to ZZ and LC); Pennington Biomedical Research Center (to GH); and the Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (LA and BC).
  • 3 Address correspondence to L Chen, Program of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, 1615 Poydras Street, Suite 1400, New Orleans, LA 70112. E-mail: lchen@lsuhsc.edu.

Abstract

Background: In 2 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials, increased coffee intake was associated with slightly higher blood pressure. However, these trials were short in duration (<85 d="d" p="p">
Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of long-term prospective studies that examined the association of habitual coffee consumption with risk of hypertension.
Design: We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Agricola, and Cochrane Library) through August 2009 with the use of a standardized protocol. Eligible studies were prospective cohort trials that examined the association of coffee consumption with incident hypertension or blood pressure.
Results: From 6 prospective cohort studies, a total of 172,567 participants and 37,135 incident hypertension cases were included. Mean follow-up ranged from 6.4 to 33.0 y. Compared with the lowest consumption [<1 0.96="0.96" 1.01="1.01" 1.07="1.07" 1.08="1.08" 1.09="1.09" 1.18="1.18" 1.20="1.20" 1.21="1.21" and="and" category="category" ci:="ci:" cup="cup" cups="cups" d="d" for="for" higher="higher" highest="highest" hypertension="hypertension" ml="ml" next="next" pooled="pooled" relative="relative" risks="risks" s="s" second="second" the="the" were="were">5 cups/d). A dose-response meta-analysis showed an inverse “J-shaped” curve (P for quadratic term < 0.001) with hypertension risk increasing up to 3 cups/d (RR for comparison of 3 with 0 cups/d: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.20) and decreasing with higher intakes (RR for comparison of 6 with 0 cups/d: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.10).
Conclusion: The results suggest that habitual coffee consumption of >3 cups/d was not associated with an increased risk of hypertension compared with <1 1="1" 3="3" a="a" appeared="appeared" associated="associated" be="be" consumption="consumption" cup="cup" cups="cups" d.="d." d="d" elevated="elevated" however="however" light-to-moderate="light-to-moderate" of="of" p="p" risk="risk" slightly="slightly" to="to" with="with">
  • Received September 9, 2010.
  • Accepted March 7, 2011.

WRAP DE FRANGO COM COTTAGE

Publicado  


WRAP DE FRANGO COM COTTAGE
INGREDIENTES:
1 PORÇÃO DE QUEIJO COTTAGE
MASSA PARA WRAP
PEITO DE FRANGO DESFIADO
MOLHO DE TOMATE NATURAL OU TOMATES PICADOS
SALSINHA E CEBOLINHA
DEMAIS TEMPEROS A GOSTO.
MODO DE PREPARO:
PRÉ AQUECER A FRIGIDEIRA,  DIMINUIR O FOGO, AQUECER A MASSA PARA WRAP
LEVEMENTE APENAS EM UM DOS LADOS. ACRESCENTE OS INGREDIENTES, FECHE A
MASSA EM FORMATO CILINDRICO E COLOQUE POR ATÉ 1MIN NO MICROONDAS.

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Tomates proteicos com Ervas e Azeite de Oliva

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Tomates proteicos com Ervas e Azeite de Oliva
Ingredientes:
- 800 gr de tomate
-200g de tofu natural sem sal
- 10 colher(es) (sopa) de azeite de oliva
- 10 dente(s) de alho picado(s) finamente
- 15 gr de manjericão
- 1/2 xícara(s) (chá) de salsinha
- 1/2 xícara(s) (chá) de PAO SEM GLUTEN, SEM ACUCAR SEM LACTOSE (PREVIAMENTE
TORRADA E QUEBRADO EM PEDACOS) (CROUTONS)
- 1/2 colher(es) (sopa) de sal grosso ORGANICO
Preparação:
Tire as peles dos tomates, corte em rodelas grossas e, com cuidado, retire as sementes.
Espalhe 5 colheres (sopa) do azeite de oliva espanhol numa assadeira e, por cima, distribua
as rodelas de tomates lado a lado. Reserve. No processador, junte o alho , as folhas de
manjericão rasgadas com as mãos, a salsinha picada e as torradas. Bata rapidamente, no
modo pulsar, apenas para formar uma farofa. Vá colocando a farofa dentro das rodelas de
tomate e, depois, regue com o azeite restante. Polvilhe com o sal grosso organico. Leve ao
forno médio, por 1 hora ou até os tomates ficarem assados e sem água. Retire e adicione o
tofu picado ou do jeito que preferir. Dica - Esse prato pode ser servido com salada, antepasto
ou guarnição, acompanhando peito de frango tambem.

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FRUTOSE DAS FRUTAS PODE SER BOA.

Publicado  quinta-feira, 9 de agosto de 2012



Fructose in fruits may be good for you, especially if you are low in glycogen


Excessive dietary fructose has been shown to cause an unhealthy elevation in serum triglycerides. This and other related factors are hypothesized to have a causative effect on the onset of the metabolic syndrome. Since fructose is found in fruits (see table below, from Wikipedia; click to enlarge), there has been some concern that eating fruit may cause the metabolic syndrome.


Vegetables also have fructose. Sweet onions, for example, have more free fructose than peaches, on a gram-adjusted basis. Sweet potatoes have more sucrose than grapes (but much less overall sugar), and sucrose is a disaccharide derived from glucose and fructose. Sucrose is broken down to fructose and glucose in the human digestive tract.

Dr. Robert Lustig has given a presentation indicting fructose as the main cause of the metabolic syndrome, obesity, and related diseases. Yet, even he pointed out that the fructose in fruits is pretty harmless. This is backed up by empirical research.

The problem is over-consumption of fructose in sodas, juices, table sugar, and other industrial foods with added sugar. Table sugar is a concentrated form of sucrose. In these foods the fructose content is unnaturally high; and it comes in an easily digestible form, without any fiber or health-promoting micronutrients (vitamins and minerals).

Dr. Lustig’s presentation is available from this post by Alan Aragon. At the time of this writing, there were over 450 comments in response to Aragon’s post. If you read the comments you will notice that they are somewhat argumentative, as if Lustig and Aragon were in deep disagreement with one other. The reality is that they agree on a number of issues, including that the fructose found in fruits is generally healthy.

Fruits are among the very few natural plant foods that have been evolved to be eaten by animals, to facilitate the dispersion of the plants’ seeds. Generally and metaphorically speaking, plants do not “want” animals to eat their leaves, seeds, or roots. But they “want” animals to eat their fruits. They do not “want” one single animal to eat all of their fruits, which would compromise seed dispersion and is probably why fruits are not as addictive as doughnuts.

From an evolutionary standpoint, the idea that fruits can be unhealthy is somewhat counterintuitive. Given that fruits are made to be eaten, and that dead animals do not eat, it is reasonable to expect that fruits must be good for something in animals, at least in one important health-related process. If yes, what is it?

Well, it turns out that fructose, combined with glucose, is a better fuel for glycogen replenishment than glucose alone; in the liver and possibly in muscle, at least according to a study by Parniak and Kalant (1988). A downside of this study is that it was conduced with isolated rat liver tissue; this is a downside in terms of the findings’ generalization to humans, but helped the researchers unveil some interesting effects. The full reference and a link to the full-text version are at the end of this post.

The Parniak and Kalant (1988) study also suggests that glycogen synthesis based on fructose takes precedence over triglyceride formation. Glycogen synthesis occurs when glycogen reserves are depleted. The liver of an adult human stores about 100 g of glycogen, and muscles store about 500 g. An intense 30-minute weight training session may use up about 63 g of glycogen, not much but enough to cause some of the responses associated with glycogen depletion, such as an acute increase in adrenaline and growth hormone secretion.

Liver glycogen is replenished in a few hours. Muscle glycogen takes days. Glycogen synthesis is discussed at some length in this excellent book by Jack H. Wilmore, David L. Costill, and W. Larry Kenney. That discussion generally assumes no blood sugar metabolism impairment (e.g., diabetes), as does this post.

If one’s liver glycogen tank is close to empty, eating a couple of apples will have little to no effect on body fat formation. This will be so even though two apples have close to 30 g of carbohydrates, more than 20 g of which being from sugars. The liver will grab everything for itself, to replenish its 100 g glycogen tank.

In the Parniak and Kalant (1988) study, when glucose and fructose were administered simultaneously, glycogen synthesis based on glucose was increased by more than 200 percent. Glycogen synthesis based on fructose was increased by about 50 percent. In fruits, fructose and glucose come together. Again, this was an in vitro study, with liver cells obtained after glycogen depletion (the rats were fasting).

What leads to glycogen depletion in humans? Exercise does, both aerobic and anaerobic. So doesintermittent fasting.

What happens when we consume excessive fructose from sodas, juices, and table sugar? The extra fructose, not used for glycogen replenishment, is converted into fat by the liver. That fat is packaged in the form of triglycerides, which are then quickly secreted by the liver as small VLDL particles. The VLDL particles deliver their content to muscle and body fat tissue, contributing to body fat accumulation. After delivering their cargo, small VLDL particles eventually become small-dense LDL particles; the ones that can potentially cause atherosclerosis.

Reference:

Parniak, M.A. and Kalant, N. (1988). Enhancement of glycogen concentrations in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes exposed to glucose and fructoseBiochemical Journal, 251(3), 795–802.

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Waxymaize vs maltodextrina e dextrose.

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Waxymaize vs maltodextrina e dextrose.


Bom, cansado de escutar tudo e mais um pouco sobre suplementos de carboidratos na academia, seja na forma de suplemento no pré, intra e pós treino venho por esse espaço dar uma "luz" para os perdidos.
Deixando de lado as diferenças bioquimicas entre waxymaize e outros suplementos de carbo (como malto e dextrose que), concluo que esse conhecimento deve ser o minimo para quem quer discutir os 3, vou pular diretamente para a parte que vejo como mais importante, que na minha opinião é as vantagens do waxymaize para os praticantes de atividade fisica.
O waxymaize é um carbo complexo (assim como a malto) porem diferente da malto o waxymaize nao tem um indice glicemico tão elevado como alguns pensam por consequencia a digestao do waxymaize é mais lenta se comparado a malto. O waxymaize grosseiramente falando, gera energia de forma mais lenta porem mais constante (gradual) evitando assim picos e concentrações de insulina inconstantes. Para quem busca o controle do nivel glicemico na alimentação e ou para aqueles que fazem exericios mais longos e ficam mais tempo na academia o waxymaize é muito melhor que malto ou dextrose.Existem alguns estudos recentes que demonstram que a ingestao de waxymaize se comparado a outros suplementos de carboidrato tornou possivel um fornecimento de energia que favoreceu a utilizaçao conjunta de gordura. Logo sim utilizando waxymaize (em doses adequadas ao seu esporte e biotipo) voce pode ter queima de gordura com fornecimento de energia ao mesmo tempo.Já para os quem buscam um carboidrato de reposiçao de digestao muita rapida e indice glicemico alto a malto esta ai (exemplo usuarios de insulinotropicos).Lembrando sempre que no seu esporte com suas individualidades, seu treinador e toda equipe envolvida devem mensurar o que é preferivel para vc. Ter picos de insulina durante o dia ou manter controle glicemico atraves de uma alimentaçao de baixo e medio IG.


Referencias:


Åkerberg et al., 1998A. Åkerberg, H. Liljeberg, Y. Granfeldt, A. Drews, I. BjörckAn in vitro method based on chewing to predict resistant starch content in foods, allows parallel determination of potentially available starch and dietary fiberJournal of Nutrition, 128 (1998), pp. 651–660


Björck and Siljeström, 1992I. Björck, M. SiljeströmIn vivo and in vitro digestibility of starch in autoclaved pea- and potato productsJournal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 58 (1992), pp. 41–553


Brand, 1994J. Brand MillerImportance of glycemic index in diabetesAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59 (suppl) (1994), pp. S747–S752


Brand et al., 1992J. Brand Miller, E. Pang, L. BramallRice: a high or low glycemic index food?American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56 (1992), pp. 1034–1036


Colonna et al., 1992P. Colonna, V. Leloup, A. BuleonLimiting factors of starch hydrolysisEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46 (suppl 2) (1992), pp. S17–S32


Cui and Oates, 1997R. Cui, G. OatesThe effect of retrogradation on enzyme susceptibility of sago starchCarbohydrate Polymers, 32 (1997), pp. 65–72


Eerlingen et al., 1994R.C. Eerlingen, H. Jacobs, J.A. DelcourEnzyme-resistant Starch. V. Effect of retrogradation of waxymaizestarch on enzyme susceptibilityCereal Chemistry, 71 (1994), pp. 351–355


Englyst and Cummings, 1987H.N. Englyst, J. CummingsDigestion of polysachharides of potato in the small intestine of manAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 45 (1987), pp. 423–431


Carbohydrates in Human Nutrition. FAO–Food and Nutrition Paper, 66, 1–140 (1998)


Fredriksson et al., 1997H. Fredriksson, R. Andersson, K. Koch, P. ÅmanCalibration of a size-exclusion chromatography system by using fractions with defined amylopectin unit-chainsJournal of Chromatography A., 768 (1997), pp. 325–328


Fredriksson et al., 1998H. Fredriksson, J. Silverio, R. Andersson, A.-C. Eliasson, P. ÅmanThe influence of amylose and amylopectin characteristics on gelatinization and retrogradation properties of different starchesCarbohydrate Polymers, 35 (1998), pp. 119–134


Goddard et al., 1984M.S. Goddard, G. Young, R. MarcusThe effect of amylose content on insulin and glucose responses to ingested riceAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 39 (1984), pp. 388–392


Granfeldt et al., 1992Y. Granfeldt, I. Björck, A. Drews, J. TovarAn in vitro procedure based on chewing to predict metabolic response to starch in cereal and legume productsEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46 (1992), pp. 649–660


Hizukuri, 1986S. HizukuriPolymodal distribution of the chain lengths of amylopectins, and its significanceCarbohydrate Research, 147 (1986), pp. 342–347


Holm et al., 1988J. Holm, I. Lundquist, I. Björck, A.-C. Eliasson, N.-G. AspDegree of gelatinisation, digestion rate of starch in vitro, and metabolic response in ratsAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47 (1988), pp. 1010–1016


Juliano and Goddard, 1986B.O. Juliano, M.S. GoddardCause of varietal differences in insulin and glucose responses to ingested riceQualitas Plantarum. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 36 (1986), pp. 835–842


Kalichevsky, 1990M.T. Kalichevsky, P.D. Orford, S.G. RingThe retrogradation and gelation of amylopectins from various botanical sourcesCarbohydrate Research, 198 (1990), pp. 49–55


Koch et al., 1998K. Koch, R. Andersson, P. ÅmanQuantitative analysis of amylopectin unit-chains by means of high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detectionJournal of Chromatography A., 800 (1998), pp. 199–206


Liljeberg et al., 1996H. Liljeberg, A. Åkerberg, I. BjörckResistant starch formation in bread as influenced by choice of ingredients or baking conditionsFood Chemistry, 56 (1996), pp. 389–394


Manners, 1997D.J. MannersObservations on the specificity and nomenclature of starch debranching enzymesJournal of Applied Glycoscience, 44 (1997), pp. 83–85


Muir et al., 1993J.G. Muir, G.P. Young, K. O'DeaResistant starch: the neglected dietary fiber? implication for healthDietary Fiber Bibliography Reviews, 1 (1993), pp. 33–47


Orford et al., 1987P.D. Orford, S.G. Ring, V. Carroll, M.J. Miles, V.J. MorrisThe effect of concentration and botanical source on the gelation and retrogradation of starchJournal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 39 (1987), pp. 169–177


Roberts MD, Lockwood C, Dalbo VJ, Volek J, Kerksick CM. Ingestion of a highmolecular-weight hydrothermally modified waxy maize starch alters metabolic responses to prolonged exercise in trained cyclists.  Nutrition. 2011 Jun;27(6):659-65. Epub 2010 Oct 15.  2 -  Shimotoyodome A, Suzuki J, Kameo Y, Hase T. Dietary supplementation with hydroxypropyl-distarch phosphate from waxy maize starch increases resting energy expenditure by lowering the postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2011 Jul;106(1):96-104. Epub 2011 Feb 22. 


S.G. Ring, P. Colonna, K.J. I'Anson, M.T. Kalichvsky, M.J. Miles, V.J. Morris, P.D. OrfordThe gelation and crystallisation of amylopectinCarbohydrate Research, 162 (1987), pp. 277–293


Sakano, 1988Sakano, Y. (1998). Porcine pancreatic α-amylase. In The Amylase Research Society of Japan (Ed.) Handbook of amylases and related enzymes: their sources, isolation methods, properties and applications (pp. 22–6). Tokyo: Pergamon, pp. 22–26.Siljeström et al., 1988M. Siljeström, I. Björck, A.-C. Eliasson, M. NymanEffects on polysaccharides during baking and storage of bread—in vitro and in vivo studiesCereal Chemistry, 65 (1988), pp. 1–12


Silverio et al., 1999Silverio, J., Fredriksson, H., Andersson, R., Eliasson, A.-C., & Åman, P. (1999). The effect of temperature cycling on the amylopectin retrogradation of starches with different amylopectin unit-chain length distribution. Carbohydrate Polymers, accepted for publication.Würsch and Gumy, 1994P. Würsch, D. GumyInhibition of amylopectin retrogradation by partial beta-amylolysisCarbohydrate Research, 256 (1994), pp. 129–137